Current to Voltage Converter(I to V)

current to voltage converter

A current to voltage converter circuit produces output voltage with respect to input current. An I to V converter is used to convert varying current into equivalent output voltage.  This circuit is very much useful when the measuring instrument can measure only voltages not the current and we want to measure the output current. The best example is measuring current through a circuit using Arduino. Here the Arduino can measure only analog voltage so we need a current to voltage converter to do that. such circuits are used in Data…

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Gunn diode working principle VI characteristics & applications

Gunn diode

Gunn diode operates on the Gunn effect which is named after its inventor J.B. Gunn. He discovered the periodic variation of current in a GaAs (gallium arsenide) rod in 1963. The microwave device that operates on the principle of transfer of electrons is called as Gunn diode. This is one of the diodes used as a microwave detector. It uses the avalanche and transit time properties of semiconductors. The mechanism of transferred electrons is related to the conduction band electrons. In the case of certain semiconductor devices, the conduction band…

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VI characteristics of IGBT and it’s working principle

VI characteristics of IGBT

The VI characteristics of IGBT is as shown in Figure. In the forward direction, they are similar to those of bipolar transistors. The only difference here is that the controlling parameter is the gate to source voltage Vgs and the parameter being controlled is the drain current. The working principle of IGBT is based on Conductivity modulation. An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal semiconductor device it is a hybrid of MOSFET and BJT for high efficiency and fast switching. Read this article to know about the structure of…

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IGBT-Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor its working and applications

Symbol of IGBT

An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal semiconductor device it is a hybrid of MOSFET and BJT for high efficiency and fast switching. The power BJT has the advantage of low on state power dissipation but it cannot be switched at faster rates due to longer turn-off time, whereas MOSFETs have a very high switching speed but their power handling capacity is not as good as that of BJTs. The power MOSFET can be switched at much higher frequency but has a drawback of higher on state power loss.…

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Triac working VI characteristic, structure, working and application

Triac structure

A Triac is a bidirectional device it allows current to flow in both the directions. here we will discuss Triac working and vi characteristics, In the SCR family, after the SCR, Triac is the most widely used device for power control. Triac is a three-terminal device, with the terminals named as main terminals 1, 2 (MT1 and MT2) and gate, out of which gate is the control terminal. Triacs with large voltage and current ratings are now available in the market. Triac is a bidirectional device, i.e. the current can…

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Diac symbol, construction and VI characteristics

Symbol of Diac

The diac is basically a two-terminal device. Here we will discuss the Symbol of Diac and it’s VI characteristics. It is such a combination of semiconductor layers that allows triggering in both directions. The diac is used as a triggering device for the TRIAC circuits. Here we will discuss the Symbol of Diac and it’s VI characteristics Symbol and structure of Diac: The arrangement of a semiconductor layer is as shown in Figure. The two terminals accessible to the user are MT1 and MT2. When MT1 is positive with respect…

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VI Characteristics of SCR (Silicon controlled rectifier)

VI Characteristics of SCR

The VI characteristics of SCR(silicon controlled rectifier) is a graph of anode current Ia on the y-axis and anode to cathode voltage on the x-axis as shown in the graph. The characteristics in the reverse direction (anode to cathode voltage negative) is similar to a reverse-biased diode. SCR is a member of the thyristor family. I will suggest you read the Working of silicon controlled rectifier SCR. also Applications of SCR.   VI characteristic of SCR:   The VI Characteristics of SCR can be split into two parts namely Forward characteristics…

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Opamp as Differentiator (active differentiator)

opamp differentiator circuit

A differentiator opamp is an opamp configuration that produces a differentiated version of the signal applied to its input terminal. This process is exactly the opposite of integration. by interchanging the positions of components in an integrator circuit we can get a differentiator circuit. Here we’re going to discuss two types of differentiator circuit: Ideal differentiator Practical differentiator Ideal opamp as differentiator circuit: Circuit for ideal differentiator is as shown in the figure:   this circuit can perform the mathematical operation of differentiation on the input signal. The output is…

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